What are the Parts of a Vernier Caliper and Their Functions?

5/5 - (7 votes)

A Vernier caliper is an extremely helpful and trustworthy measuring tool. When French mathematician Pierre Vernier invented the caliper in 1631, it quickly became one of the most extensively used measuring instruments in the world, second only to the measuring scale.

Knowing how a Vernier caliper works and how each of its individual elements is designed to perform is essential for taking precise measurements.

What are the Parts of a Vernier Caliper and Their Functions
What are the Parts of a Vernier Caliper and Their Functions

Vernier Caliper Functions and Important Parts Analysis

The Vernier caliper has been transformed into a modern, more practical, and more precise digital caliper as a result of technological development. As an added bonus, they can connect to a computer, compare lengths, and convert units.

There are situations where using a manual Vernier caliper is preferable to using a digital one. You can use them when you want to because you don’t need to charge them. They can withstand rougher conditions than digital calipers can because they don’t have any electronic parts to break.

The purpose of the Vernier caliper and its key components are the topic of this essay. We will discuss them one by one.

7 Major Parts of a Vernier Caliper in 2024

We all know that Vernier Calipers’ primary function is to determine the distance between two faces of a body. Accurate measurements of an object’s height, width, and depth are now within our reach.

To do that you have familiar with the parts of the Vernier caliper. There are seven main parts in a Vernier Caliper.

1. Vernier Caliper Lower Jaws

The caliper has two jaws, with one fixed and attached to the main scale and the other free to move and attached to the smaller, more precise Vernier scale. Specifically, the lower jaws of a Vernier caliper are crucial to the tool’s overall functionality.

The major aim of these jaws is to firmly hold objects for the purpose of measuring them. There are many different applications for the lower jaws. It is not difficult to obtain measurements for the outside dimensions such as width, length, and diameter.

2. Vernier Caliper Upper Jaws

The upper jaws of a Vernier caliper are attached to the instrument’s head and have a proportionally narrower width than their lower jaw counterparts. To take accurate measures, the jaws must be positioned inside the area to be sized and opened until they touch the room’s inside walls.

When measuring the depth of a hole or the width of a slot, for instance, the upper jaws of a caliper are the tools of choice. Unlike the lower jaws, the higher jaws are used to measure the inside dimensions of hollow objects. You can easily take measurements such as the diameters of pipes and box lengths and widths, among other things.

3. Vernier Caliper Depth Rod

To measure distance, calipers use depth rods that protrude from the device. You can determine the depth of something by inserting a depth rod into the desired hole. Vernier calipers have a rod in the instrument’s head that connects the smaller upper jaws to the bigger lower jaws.

Similar to the lower jaws, these upper ones only have one moveable tooth while the other is fixed. The upper jaws, in contrast to the lower jaws, can be utilized to obtain accurate measurements of the inner space of hollow objects.

Dimensions of pipes, boxes, and their contents are all included here. As soon as the jaws are positioned inside the area to be measured, they are opened until they touch the walls. Typically, the upper jaws of a caliper are used to measure the depth of a hole or slot.

4. Vernier Caliper Main Scale

The major scale is the large one along the main body of the Vernier caliper. The graduations of a scale might be in millimeters, centimeters, or inches to suit the needs of the user.

The metric system is the universally accepted SI unit of measurement, with 1 millimeter representing the lowest increment on the primary scale. The center weighing scale remains immobile.

On the beam, itself is the primary caliper scale. Vernier calipers that are metric use millimeters and centimeters as their units of measurement (mm). A Vernier caliper that uses imperial measurements is divided into tenths for each inch (0.1 inches).

5. Vernier Scale

The Vernier caliper consists of a smaller scale that slides along the jaws of the larger scale. When used in conjunction with the main scale, the Vernier scale increases precision by allowing for finer readings at the bottom of the scale.

Vernier scale is 0.6 inches long and divided into 25 parts on a 6-inch caliper. Each 0.001-inch-by-1mm increment represents 0.02mm. Caliper’s name comes from its Vernier scale.

6. Vernier Caliper Thumb Screw

To fine-tune the caliper’s measurement surfaces, turn the thumb screw. The user is able to secure a firm grasp on the substance they are gauging.

The Vernier scale’s thumb screw can be found towards its base. Its function is to give a comfortable place for the user’s hand to rest while adjusting the position of the jaws and the depth rod.

7. Vernier Caliper Lock Screw

When you take the measurement you have to lock the object between the jaws. After the measure, you have to release the object from the jaws. We easily do it with the help of the lock screw.

The lock screw is used to fix the jaws in place after the object has been placed precisely so that measurements can be taken without moving it.

Related: Digital vs Dial vs Vernier Calipers: Which One is the Winner?


The seven components of a Vernier caliper each have a specific function that contributes to an accurate reading. Having a thorough understanding of how each component contributes to the whole will allow you to achieve your goals with minimal effort.

For assistance of any magnitude, our professionals are here 24/7. To learn more about the Caliper stay with us.

Photo of author

Calvin Cameron

Hello, I'm Calvin Cameron. I'm a metalworking specialist for more than a decade. As a metalworker, I've been working in various areas like automotive plants, jewelry shops, and shipyards. I'm experienced with a lot of machines, tools, and materials. This is my loving area where I can talk and share about tools, measurement, and provide accurate data. Hope you will find some really good things from my research and studies. Enjoy reading.

Leave a Comment

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.